Library

Content Library

  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening complication of critical illness. These underlying critical illnesses may include sepsis, pancreatitis, pneumonia (either due to an infection or the inhalation of foreign materials), trauma, near-drowning, and other severe illnesses. In ARDS, massive inflammation and the release of various inflammatory chemicals leads to the leaking of capillaries within the lungs. Signs of ARDS include increased respiratory rate, blue discoloration to skin and mucous membranes due to poor oxygen delivery, and occasionally coughing. Treatment of ARDS is primarily focused on supportive care and addressing the underlying critical illness.

  • Addison’s disease is caused by the decreased release of the hormones cortisol and aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. Most commonly caused by immune-mediated destruction, Addison’s disease can also be caused by trauma, infection, neoplasia or hyperadrenocorticism treatment. Clinical signs are non-specific and often come and go. Common signs include lethargy, vomiting, diarrhea, increased thirst and urination, and weight loss. Some patients present in an Addisonian crisis which includes severe weakness, severe vomiting and diarrhea and requires immediate medical intensive care in hospital. Addison’s is diagnosed using history, bloodwork, urinalysis, and ultimately an ACTH stimulation test. Addison’s is treated by administering synthetic replacements for aldosterone and cortisol. Prognosis is good once dogs have been stabilized on medication.

  • Hypoadrenocorticism, also known as Addison’s disease, is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough glucocorticoids (steroids) to allow normal body function. This condition is considered rare in cats, but numerous cases have been reported. Affected cats often have a history of waxing and waning periods of lethargy, decreased appetite, and weight loss. Long-term, cats with hypoadrenocorticism require medications to supplement the substances released from the adrenal glands.

  • Lipomas are benign tumors of fat seen in middle-aged to older animals. Sometimes these tumors grow in between muscle layers are called infiltrative lipomas. Lipomas are benign and do not typically behave aggressively. Liposarcomas are the malignant form of the disease. These tumors are usually diagnosed by a fine needle aspiration, though biopsy or advanced diagnostic imaging may be required before surgery. Surgery is the best course of action for pets with lipomas and fat-based tumors.

  • Applying Ear Drops to Cats

    Las gotas tópicas en el oído son con frecuencia necesarias para el tratamiento de enfermedades inflamatorias o infecciosas del oído. Algunos gatos tolerarán muy bien la administración de líquidos y ungüentos en sus oídos, mientras que otros pueden mostrarse reticentes o agresivos.

  • Applying Eye Drops to Cats

    Administrar las gotas oculares de forma correcta es muy importante en la recuperación de infecciones o lesiones en los ojos de su gato. Asegúrese de leer cuidadosamente la etiqueta y entender las intrucciones de la prescripción médica. Si surge cualquier duda, comuníquese con su veterinario.

  • Giving Liquid Medication to Cats

    La manera más fácil para administrar medicación líquida a su gato es mezclándola con comida húmeda. Para asegurarse de que su gato se traga toda la medicación, lo mejor es mezclarla en una cantidad pequeña de comida y ofrecérsela con la mano, mejor que mezclar en un bol entero de comida que puede que no termine.

  • The adrenal glands are responsible for hormone production. Overproduction of these hormones typically manifests as Cushing’s disease (hyperadrenocorticism). Typically, these tumors are benign in nature and can be treated medically, though malignant tumors (e.g., carcinomas/adenocarcinomas) are possible. In these cases, surgical excision is generally required. The prognosis for patients with adrenal tumors is generally good if surgical removal is complete.

  • The adrenal medulla is responsible for producing hormones such as epinephrine and norepinephrine. Dysregulated replication of the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla lead to development of a pheochromocytoma. These tumors produce excess hormone that leads to episodes of hypertension and tachycardia. Early detection via abdominal ultrasound is imperative for surgical success. CT scan prior to surgery is recommended as these tumors have the potential for vascular invasion leading to post-operative complications. Staging is recommended given that approximately 40% of patients will have evidence of spread at time of diagnosis.

  • The determination and wiry coat hark back to terrier breeds, with a sprinkle of flat-nosed breeds, giving them their distinct expression. The Affenpinscher originally called the Miniature Pinscher his litter-brother, with both often born in the same litter. These were often scrappy little farm dogs, helping to keep the farmsteads free of rodents.